By Mike Stailey & Judith Kukowski
French trader Lamothe de Cadillac persuades the Wyandot to migrate from Michilimackinac (present day Mackinac Michigan) and settle near Fort Pontchartrain (present day Detroit Michigan) to continue trade with the French Jesuit Father Etienne de Carheil of the Michilimackinac mission tries to persuade the Wyandot to stay but they leave for Fort Pontchartrain. Jesuits burn their house at the mission and return to Québec, Canada.
The Great Peace of Montreal was negotiated between the French Governor of New France (Canada) Louis Hector de Calliere and the Iroquois, Huron, Abenaki, Ottawa, Algonquin, Miami and Pottawatomi Nations. It was signed August 4, 1701. Kondiaronk, le Rat, of the Hurons was one of the chief negotiators but he never signed the treaty because he died the night he gave his famous speech. (Why was Kondiaronk called Le Rat? Because he signed by drawing a picture of a muskrat, his totem.)
The 4 main tenets of the treaty were:
- Agreed not to make war on each other
- Agreed to recognize the French Governor as mediator in all disputes
- Agreed that ALL would have free access to the hunting grounds north of Lake Ontario and west of Detroit
- The Iroquois agreed to remain neutral in any war between the French and the English. The interpreters were: for the Abenacki, Vincent Bigotfor the Huron (Wendat), Julien Garnier; for the Iroquois, Jacques Bruyas, Missionary; for the Iroquois, Lt. Louis Thomas Chabert de Joncaire.
The Wyandot establish villages in the south eastern part of the Michigan territory at Detroit Michigan
Jesuits re-establish mission on south side of Detroit River in Sandwich (present day Windsor Ontario)
Part of the Michigan Wyandot establish a village at Sandwich
More of the Michigan Wyandot migrate and settle on the south shore of Lake Erie in the Ohio Territory
Remainder of Michigan Wyandot in Detroit area move their villages to lower south eastern Michigan and northern Ohio territories
Jesuits transfer Sandwich mission to Bois Blanc Island (present day Bob-Lo Island Ontario) and near Anderdon Ontario (present day Amherstburg) Part of the Canadian Wyandot establish villages at Anderdon and across the Detroit river in Michigan territory at Brownstown (present day Gibraltar MI) and Maguagua (present day Wyandotte MI).
- 1749 – 1753
The French preparing to defend it’s territories from the British invasion look to the Wyandot as an ally
- 1754 – 1763
French and Indian War with British, with the British being the victors
At the conclusion of the war and to ease tension with the Native Americans, Great Britain declares proclamation no colonists to settle west of the Allegheny mountains (present day Pennsylvania) and requires those already settled in those regions to return east. Between 1754 and 1763 the French and the English were locked in the Seven Years War aka The French and Indian War. When England defeated France they were given possession of Canada. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was promulgated and all citizens of Canada had to pledge allegiance to Great Britain. This however did not cover the sovereign First Nations Peoples. Sir William Johnson then negotiated the Covenant Chain Treaty of Niagara of 1764 which replaced the Great Peace of Montreal of 1701. The First Nations Peoples thus gave allegiance to the English.This treaty had unexpected consequences for the Huron/Wyandot people. When the War of 1812 broke out between the new American nation and the British some of our Wyandot people felt forced to fight for the British because of this treaty. This caused the split within our Nation. The Detroit River became the dividing line between the pro-British faction and the pro American Faction.
Treaty with the British Government at Presque Isle (Present day Erie PA). British treaty states no hostilities will be taken against the Wyandot for their part in the French – Indian war and current territories occupied by the Wyandot will remain with them forever and a new trade agreement is made. The Wyandot have villages and have resided in the south eastern Michigan, northern Ohio and south west Ontario territories since 1702, some 62 years
- 1775 – 1776
Revolutionary war between Great Britain and American colonies. Declaration of Independence is signed.
Jesuit Father Pierre Potier missionary at Assumption (Sandwich Ontario) dies. Jesuit abandon all missions in Ontario with the
Treaty of Fort Mc’Intosh with the United States Government (326k, PDF Format)The Wyandot cede a portion of the Michigan and Ohio territory. The U.S. establishes what part of the Ohio territories to be held by the Wyandot and proclaims non-Native American settlers in said territory will not be protected by the United States and will be dealt with by the Native Americans as they please; that a Wyandot Chief to be held by the U.S. Government until all prisoners held by the Wyandot are released to the U.S. Government.
Treaty of Fort Harmar with the Unites States Government (947k, PDF Format). Treaty restates the conditions of the Fort Mc’Intosh treaty but did not address grievances by the Wyandot or other Native Americans; that New Englander colonists were settling on Native American territory given them by the United States. That said territory boundaries granted the Wyandot from the Mc’Intosh Treaty shall remain theirs forever.
Treaty number 2 with the British Government (817k, PDF Format)
Large portions of the south western Ontario territory are ceded to the British Government The British Government grants 2 reserve territories, Sandwich and Anderdon for the Anderdon Wyandot to inhabit forever.
Jay Treaty between the United States and British Government
Article III of the Jay Treaty declared the right of aboriginal peoples (people indigenous to Canada and/or the US) to trade and travel between the United States and Canada: Ontario, Michigan and Ohio. Wyandot fearing loss of more land enter into battle (Fallen Timbers in the Ohio Territory – present day Maumee OH) with the United States led by General Anthony Wayne at the direction of President George Washington.
Treaty of Greenville with the United States Government (1,166k, PDF Format). The Wyandot cede a large portion of their Ohio territory granted them from the treaty of Fort Mc’Intosh and Harmar. U.S. mandates all people of the United States are allowed passage by either land or water through territory held by the Wyandot in
Ohio territory. U.S. Government to hold a Wyandot Chief prisoner until Wyandot Nation releases U.S. prisoners captured at Fallen Timbers.
Early Canadiana Online
Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties – Charles J. Kappler, Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center
The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents – Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France 1610—1791
Handbook of North American Indians – Elisabeth Tooker
Wyandot Treaties with United States 1785-1867 – Gertrude Free
Wyandot Treaties with Canada 1790-1892 – Gertrude Free
The Avalon Project at Yale Law School – The Jay Treaty of 1794